Following an ionizing circular polarized laser pulse that crosses a sample, ions and electrons are extracted in opposing directions to their respective detectors. The complete momentum of electrons is obtained from a time- and position-sensitive imaging detector. Mass analysis is achieved by measuring the ion Time-of-Flight. Coincidence detection of a mass-selected ion and an electron identifies particles from a single molecular ionization event. The mass-tagged electron distribution displays a forward-backward angular asymmetry (PECD) along the laser beam that can distinguish between enantiomers (S-M versus R-M), while the radius of the distribution maps the electron kinetic energy. The asymmetry reveals that the compound is chiral.


Below you can find a short historic review of the development of laser-based MS-PECD: 

Start of theoretical concept development and calculations
1976 Publication by Ritchie on the theoretical concept of PhotoElectron Circular Dichroism
1982 Publication by Cherepkov on the quantum theory of photoelectron angular distribution from a chiral molecule
2000 Publication by Powis of the first theoretical calculation of the magnitude of PECD in a real molecule

Start of experimental synchrotron-based single photon PECD (2001- present)
2001 Publication by Heinzmann and coworkers of the first experimental verification of PECD asymmetry obtained with synchrotron radiation
2003 Publication by Powis, Nahon and coworkers of the first full electron angular distribution of PECD obtained with synchrotron radiation
2015 Publication by Powis, Nahon and coworkers reviewing the first 15 years of single photon PECD
2015 Publication by Mairesse and coworkers on HHG-based single photon PECD

Start of experimental table-top laser-based multiphoton MS-PECD (2008 - present)
2008 Publication by Janssen and coworkers on a novel  femtosecond laser-based double VMI electron-ion coincidence imaging spectrometer
2008 First email discussion by Janssen and Powis on the potential and merits of laser-based multiphoton PECD
2010 EU-proposal submitted by Janssen and coworkers to study chiral molecules with polarization shaped laser and coincidence imaging
2011 Publication by Janssen and coworkers on our proposition for direct MS of chiral molecules and the technology of laser-based MS-PECD 
2011 First paper on multiphoton MS-PECD by Janssen and coworkers submitted to and rejected by Nature
2011 Lecture by Janssen at CFEL/DESY in Hamburg on first experimental results of laser-based multi-photon MS-PECD in camphor
2011 Proposal by Janssen to the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research for further science and development of MS-PECD
2012 Submission by Janssen of first experimental results of laser-based MS-PECD at Ultrafast Phenomena Conference Lausanne 2012
2012 Publication by Janssen and coworkers of first results of laser-based MS-PECD published at Ultrafast Phenomena Conference, July 2012 
2012 Publication by Baumert and coworkers on non-mass selected laser-based PECD
2013 Publication by Janssen, Powis and coworkers of full experimental results, data analysis and theoretical modelling of MS-PECD                  (J. Chem. Phys. Editor Award for groundbreaking research in Chemical Physics)
2014 Invited Perspective by Janssen and Powis on science, technology and applications of synchrotron-based and laser-based MS-PECD
2014 Lecture at Chirality 2014 Conference Prague of first experimental results of laser-based MS-PECD in multi-component mixture
2015 Publication by Janssen, Powis and coworkers in Nature Communications on enantiomeric excess measurements in multi-component mixtures by MS-PECD


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